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英汉法律翻译教程
发布时间: 2016-04-06 16:43 点击次数:

  

英汉法律翻译教程 (孙万彪教授)


前言
合同有一定的模式和一般性的条款。

法律翻译的基本标准。“忠实通顺”
法律翻译的难处:对法律用于的理解,长句的解读和翻译。

导论:法律文件的翻译
法律英语的严肃性和严密性
法律文件往往使用正式的词语,被赋予专门意义并已进入法律英语范畴的普通词语,英语古词语,外来词语,法律属于和行话,套话。
法律文件之中经常会不少结构复杂,文辞冗长的句子。法律文件最突出的特点是客观公正,不带主观色彩,因而句子中较少出现人称主语, 更多的是被动语态和名词化结构。
法律翻译,直译。应对法律文件的每一个词(包括虚词)都不能掉以轻心,应该按其在法律语境中的意思进行翻译。即使是介词也应当重视。
翻译长句,应该在准确理解句子的完整意思的基础上,按中国所习惯的时间顺序(如由过去,现在到将来),和逻辑思维顺序(如“因”而“果”),将英语原句译成符合汉语表达习惯的文字。“拆分——整合”的处理方式。
法律翻译工作者除了在英语和汉语的功底和写作能力有较高的要求,同时还需要有一点个法律和经济方面的知识。
 
1. 人称代词和物主代词的翻译
汉语里的人称代词不多。在英语里,凡是能用人称代词取代名词的地方都用代词。汉语有重复名次的强,而不会过多使用人称代词。 法律翻译之中只有代词“其”才是最合适的。
三种翻译方法:
1. 译成汉语代词
(a) Without prior written approval, no Party shall assign any and all of its rights and interests and delegate its responsibilities under this Agreement to any third party.
未经事先允许,任何一方不得将其在本协议项下的任何和全部权利和权益让与及将其在本协议项下的责任委托给第三方。

2. 译成所代替的名词
(a) This Contract is executed in Chinese. If necessary, it may be translated into other languages.   本合同以中文文本签署。如有必要,本合同可译成其他文字。

(b) This Agreement constitues the entire agreeement between the parties with respect to its subject matter, and no variation of this Agreement shall be dffective unless made in writing and signed by all of the parties.  本协议构成双方关于本协议标的的完整协议,对本协议的任何修改,只有通过书面形式并经双方签字后方能生效。

3. 省略不译
(a) The formation of this Contract, its validity, interpretation, execution and settlement of disputes in connection herewith shall be governed by the laws of the People’s Republic of China.   本合同的订立,效力,解释,执行和合同争议的解决,均受中华人民共和国法律的管辖。

(b) A certificate issued by the Chamber of Commerce or other appropriate authority where such circumstances occur shall be sufficient proof of the existence of such circumstances and their duration.    不可抗力事件发生地的商会或其他有关部门出具的证明,应足以证明不可抗力事件的存在和延续的时间。
 
 Assignment/transfer 转让
1. Neither Party may assign this Agreement, in whole or in part, without the other Party’s prior written consent, except to (i) any corporation resulting from any merger, consolidation or other reorganization invilving the assigning Party, and (ii) any entity to which the assigning Party may transfer all or substantially all of its assets; provided that the assignee agrees in writing to be bound by all the terms and conditions of the Agreement and provides documentation as evidence that the assignee has the ability and capability of meeting all of the obligations under this Agreement. 
任何一方未经另一方事先书面同意,不得转让本协议的全部或部分,除非转让给(i)涉及转让方的因兼并,合并或其他重组而产生的任何公司,(ii)转让方可以向其转让全部或绝大部分资产的实体;但受让方须书面同意受本协议所有条款和条件约束,并提供文件证明受让方有资格、有能力履行本协议项下的全部义务。

2. Without prior written approval, no Party shall assign any and all of it rights and interests and delegate its responsibilities under this Agreement to any third party. However, Party B shall have the right to assign its rights and interests and delegates its responsibilities hereunder to an affiliate; provided that Part B shall continue to warrant that such affiliate will complete the purchase of the equity interest in the manner contemplated by this Agreement.
任何一方未经事先书面批准, 不得将其在本协议项下的任何和全部权利和权益让与及将其在本协议项下的责任委托给任何第三方。但乙方有权将其在本协议项下的权利和权益让与及将其在本协议项下的责任委托给一家关联公司,但是乙方应继续保证该关联公司将以本协议拟定的方式完成对股权的购买。

 


3. Neither Party hereto shall assign this Agreement or any of its rights and interests herunder without the other Party’s prior written consent, which shall not be unreasonably withheld. Notwithstanding the above provision of this Clause, (a) Party A shall have the right to assign its rights to any subsidiary, affiliate or successor entity as long as Party A remains liable to perform all of its obligations under this Agreement as applicable, and (b) Party B may, without the consent of Party A, assign in whole, but not in part, its rights herunder to any subsidiary, affiliate or successor entity of Party B or its ultimate parent company (provided that any such assignment to any such subsidiary shal not be deemed as a release of Party B’s obligations hereunder unless Party A shall have given prior written consent to any such release and Party B shall remain liable to Party A in respect of any breach of this Clause.) Any attempted assignment in contravention of this Clause shall be void.
本协议任何一方未经另一方事先书面同意(该另一方不得无理拒绝同意),不得转让本协议或其在本协议项下的任何权利和权益。尽管本条有上述规定,但(a)甲方有权将其权利让与任何子公司、关联公司或继承实体,只要在适用情况下,加方仍有责任履行其在本协议项下的全部义务,(b)乙方可以无须经加方同意,将其在本协议项下的全部(而不是部分)权力让与乙方的任何子公司、关联公司或继承实体或其最终的母公司(但是像任何该等子公司进行转让,不应被视为解除一方在本协议项下的义务,除非甲方已事先书面同意予以解除,且乙方若违反本条规定仍需对甲方负有责任)。任何试图违反本条规定进行的转让均为无效。

Hereto ,hereunder 中的here 系指this Agreement, hereto =to this Agreement, hereunder= under this Agreement
Shall 用在法律文件中,表示法律规定的义务,legal obligation 翻译成“应”
Should 表示道义上的义务,moral obligation 翻译成“应该”,“应当”
Notwithstanding 尽管,正式用语
Such 是典型的法律用语,用以指前面提及的人或事,一般译为“该(等)”,有时视上下文也可译作“上述”、“前述”。

有关合同翻译和法律翻译,笔者建议读一读孙万彪教授的书,写得比较详细,讲解的也比较透彻。


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